Montauk Monster and solving the mystery of Mohenjo Daro
Some people claim that monsters and gods could be evidence for alien visitations and that E.T. could have changed and mixed DNA on creatures that became gods for ancient people. But is there any truth to this?
Archaeologist Fredrik is looking into the claims that the Montauk Monster found in 2008 could be evidence of this. Or could the monster be an ordinary creature distorted by postmortem processes?
Further, we look into radioactivity claims in Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in today's Pakistan. We will discuss city planning and waste management and how a small translation error can create a modern legend.
In Digging up Ancient Aliens, our host Fredrik uses his background in archaeology to discover what is genuine, fake, and somewhere in between in popular media, such as Ancient Aliens, Ancient Apocalypse, and many other places.
In this episode:
Montauk Monster 2:27
Mohenjo Daro - City Planning and Waste 12:13
Solving the radioactive Mohenjo Daro 18:37
Here be monstrous misinformation 36:56
Sources, resources and further reading suggestions
A creature is washed up on the beach, scaring three local women. Could this creature be evidence of alien DNA mutation? Or could the origin have been older and part of a radioactive experiment in an ancient city, ultimately leading to its doom? Most likely not, but let's find out.
Hi, hello, and välkommen to Digging Up Ancient Aliens. This is the podcast where we examine strange claims about alternative history and ancient aliens in popular media. Do their claims hold water to an archeologist, or are there better explanations out there?
I'm your host, Fredrik, and this is episode 38, and it's good to be back from my little vacation. I'm all rested, and it's time to dig up some dirt on the Ancient Alien theories. This time I watched the episode "Aliens and Monsters," the second episode from season three (S03E02) initially aired in August 2011. As the episode name might hint, it deals with monsters in ancient texts and how they are evidence of aliens mixing with DNA trying to create strange hybrids. While we could talk a bit about everything they bring up, ranging from the Lochness monster to the Indian god Garoda, I've decided to focus on solving two things. The Montauk Monster and the claim of radiation in Mohenjo-Daro. So strap in because this will be a wild ride.
As usual, you can find sources, resources, and reading suggestions on our website, diggingupancientaliens.com. There you also find contact info if you notice any mistakes or have any suggestions. And if you like the podcast, I would appreciate it if you left one of those fancy five-star reviews I've heard so much about.
Now that we have finished our preparations, let's dig into the episode.
The first thing we encounter in this episode is a modern mystery. Well, we will soon learn that it's only a mystery if you don't look for an answer. You may have heard about this one, the Montauk Monster. The Ancient Alien experts, to use the term lose and dangerous, describe this creature like this.
"At actually looked like a hybrid creature, that had the claws of a raccoon and possibly the beak of a bird and the body perhaps of a dog. A very unusual creature. A photograph is taken and circulated. It started popping up all over the internet. It went viral." - Franklin Ruehl.
The quote is from Franklin Ruehl, who had a Ph.D. in theoretical nuclear physics, and another example that a degree doesn't protect you from bad ideas. If you don't remember, the monster was "discovered" by three women on July 13, 2008, on a beach in Montauk, New York. The carcass is furless, with fingerlike paws and what some claim to be a beak but with sharp-looking teeth. Looking at the picture available, it's not surprising that people believe it to be some sort of monster; it looks rather scary. While it has an odd appearance, it's not the mystery the show paints it to be. The key to understanding this monster lay in understanding Taphonomy. Or, in other words, understanding how a body decay after death.
When a creature, animal, or human dies, postmortem changes start to occur immediately. Different processes kick-off and begin to change the body's chemical composition and appearance. Within 21 days from the time of death, most carcasses show signs of bloating, discoloration, skin slippage, post-bloating rupture, and hair loss. It has been noted that animal cadavers in water tend to loosen the fur rather quickly, which would explain the almost complete hair loss that we can see on the monster.
As for the beak that we heard mentioned by Franklin Ruehl, the explanation can be found in the fact that many of us don't know how our noses are constructed. I did have a few courses in osteology, and something that's become apparent rather quickly is that the nose bone is really short, and a large part of your nose is actually not bone but cartilage. There are different types of cartilage throughout your body, but in your nose, it's a type of membrane made out of fiber. If you take two fingers, close your nostrils, and move the fingers upward, you will find the nasal bone. As you might note, it ends close to the cranium. The part that sticks out is the cartilage; you might feel it's pretty soft and flexible.
This soft cartilage decay quickly after death and is rare in the archaeological record. The reason why we have spent some time talking about human snoots is that animals have the same construction on their sniffers. Sure, the shape might be slightly different, but the principle is the same. If we apply a bit of osteology on the carcass, looking at the teeth and nasal shape, the head looks like a perfect match for a raccoon. A conclusion Palaeozoologist Darren Nash and others seems to share. Add the long fingers typical for a raccoon and the tail the identification appears to be secure enough. Unfortunately, an unknown individual is claimed to have removed the carcass, so we might not have a definitive identification of the animal. I don't think we have brought up much of Occams razor in the past, but it is very much applicable here and in much of what we talk about, to be honest.
If you are unfamiliar with this idea, Occam's razor is a problem-solving principle stating that the simplest explanation is usually the correct one. It's also known as the law of parsimony or the principle of parsimony. Occam's razor is named after William of Ockham, a 14th-century English philosopher. However, earlier philosophers like Duns Scotus and Durandus of Saint-Pourçain had similar ideas to Ockham.
Occam's razor works by saying that we should prefer the most straightforward explanation when we have two or more competing explanations for a phenomenon. This is because the simplest explanation is the one that is most likely to be correct. For example, if we see a footprint in the sand, we could explain it by saying it was made by a human, dog, or dinosaur. However, the simplest explanation is that it was made by a human, and this is because humans are the only known creature to create a footprint.
Occam's razor is not always right, and there are times when the simplest explanation is not the correct one. However, it is a helpful principle to follow when solving problems.
I also see a common mistake in reporting the Montauk Monster: asking the wrong kind of experts. While some reporters did try to reach out to people with a zoological background, these were not experts on dead animals. Honestly, it's more intricate than you might think to identify a piece of bone and attribute it to the proper animal. For example, if you head to the episode's webpage, you'll find a picture of an animal cranium. Can you correctly identify the species without resorting to Google?
But why is Ancient Aliens talking about a dead raccoon that somehow made the news back in 2008? Well, I'll let Giorgio answer that question for us!
"If the Montauk Monster is, in fact, a reality, then that could mean that if we're able today to create some very bizarre creatures behind closed doors in labs all around the world, it is possible that our ancestors, especially the extraterrestrial ancestors, had the same capability. Because in ancient texts, we have numerous references to monsters, bizarre beings that have been described in great detail." - Giorgio Tsoukalos.
So the monster is only a segway by a logical fallacy into the rest of the episode. From the beast on the Jersey shore, we head over to Greek mythology. They talk about the Chimera, the Hydra, and Cerberus and then refer to the Gorgons as a monster. The Gorgons were three sisters within Greek mythology, not one creature per se. Maybe a bit of hairsplitting there, but we get quotes as follows.
"To suggest that all of these creatures were nothing else but fantasy, in my opinion, doesn't really hold water because our ancestors weren't stupid. They depicted what they saw. We find these mixed hybrid beings all throughout Egypt as sphinxes, as griffons, as bizarre creatures that, according to the ancient Egyptian texts, they did exist. They were not a fantasy of our ancestors' imagination." - Giorgio Tsoukalos.
Right, the idea that ancient people lacked words to describe things adequately or lacked imagination is plain silly. This whole section is just frivolous ideas, and we humans are aces when it comes to dreaming something up. Our main advantage from an evolutionary perspective is that we can imagine things and concepts. While some ancient people believed these creatures existed, there's no evidence that they did. It's as if the future people would look back and think we living today thought witchers were real. While monsters are fun and can be fun parts of stories or games, it's not real.
But it does not stop von Däniken, Jonathan Young, or Phillip Coppens from speculating how and why these creatures were created. It seems to boil down to curiousness from the aliens trying to develop a master hybrid for their gold mining. But we only get pure speculations, not that it will stop the experts from speculating on the creatures' origin. To find this, we have to travel across the world to the Indus Valley.
Mohenjo-Daro city planing and sewers
Greetings! You have arrived at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in the Larkana District of South-Eastern Pakistan. This is far from the first time we have visited the site. The first time was back in episode 7 with Erik Palmgren, and if you want to listen to that episode, you will have to become a member, don't worry; it's 100% free. It's pretty new, so the first eight episodes can only be found in the members portal from now. Don't worry; I won't use the power of paywall for our regular episodes. Maybe some bonus content might end there, but I want this show to be as accessible as possible. We also visited the Mohenjo-Daro in episode 19 when looking at Nazi alien mythology.
Mohenjo-Daro is described by the cryptozoologist Franklin Ruehl as a modern city with parallel streets, advanced sewage systems, and toilets in every house. To give Ruehl some credit here, this is kind of true. Mohenjo-Daro was advanced for being constructed around 2500 BCE by people from the Harappan Civilization. Named after the site Harappa located in Punjab, Pakistan. The name of the city of Mohenjo-Daro translates to "Mound of the dead" or "Mound of Mohan" in Sindi, a language spoken in South-Eastern Pakistan. Sindi as a language seems to have spread in the Historic sources around 900 CE. So the site's name is different from what the inhabitants would have called it since the Harappa culture did not develop writing. Even if there are some signs of a proto-Indus script, there's not enough evidence to state they had writing.
Mohenjo-Daro was, for the time, a large city with, at its peak, some 40 000 inhabitants. From the look of things, there seems to have been a sort of city planning of the city, even if some parts grew organically. But there is a clear structure and idea on a larger scale over the town. A thing that the inhabitants were quite intuitive about was the sewage system. When you construct a large city, you will have to deal with a couple of issues. The two more important things are the water supply and human waste management. And for the latter, there have been many variations, ranging from a hole in the yard that you empty with buckets, cesspools, open drainage, or just having it in the street that was later washed away into the local river. All of these have their issues; cesspools, for example, tend to explode, and open drainage comes with quite the smell. Also, washing it down into the river can have quite the consequences, as London learned during the "Great stink" in 1858.
In Mohenjo-Daro, we find a semi-closed drainage system with a sophistication that was not beaten until the Roman sewage systems thousands of years later. During excavations in Mohenjo-Daro, a drainage system was discovered, typically going about 50 centimeters below the street level and having a minimum diameter of 15 cm. These drains were usually covered by flagstones, wood, or other various covers. The sloping is around 2 cm per meter, which is not much, but with enough water pouring, the waste should move down the pipes.
The question archaeologists ask about this system is what was supposed to go in the drains. Many houses have a shallow basin of baked bricks connected to the drainage system. But in many of the homes, we also find in the same room as the basin latrines with a vertical chute. Some seem to aim for either the drain but on the outside of the house or a local cesspit. So was the drainage more for grey water left from bathing, cleaning, cooking, etc. Or was it designed to wash away what's been deposited from the lavatory? But then again, not all the toilets were connected to the drains. But it could be argued that if not everyone poured water in the gutter, the flow would be too low, and the stench would build up in the streets. It might be good to note here that some of the more immense palaces were not connected to the drains at all.
It's clear that the Harappan people were doing some fascinating experimentation but most likely a smelly one. But this part of our human past is easy to forget, and it's pretty fun to read the research on it.
But it is not really toilets and sewage that brought us to this location from the start. The real reason we're here is, of course, due to the nuclear explosion that's supposed to have happened here. We hear again these strange claims about Mohenjo-Daro and the supposed ending of the town.
Solving the radioactive Mohenjo Daro
"Skeletons were found in dead positions as though there's an instantaneous death, and some of those skeletons, as measured by Soviet scientists, had 50 times the normal radioactivity. They found pottery that had been fused, then walls were heated to such an extent they became vitrified or glasslike, suggesting some sort of ancient nuclear weapon involved." - Franklin Ruehl.
If you have been listening for a while or are familiar with these ideas, what you just heard is nothing new. We have covered these claims in the past, so I'll gloss over the skeletons in the streets and the fused pottery. Let's focus on where this claim originates since I believe it can teach us a valuable lesson in approaching sources.
Who was the first person to claim that Mohenjo-Daro was evidence for a nuclear explosion? While claims of atomic war appear in "Morning of the Magicians," "Chariots of the Gods," and the "Twelth Planet," and many other books, these are all based on misread religious texts. Something we will return to a bit later. But Mohenjo-Daro is not mentioned at all, or not at all, until Charles Berlitz's 1972 book "Mysteries from Forgotten Worlds." Berlitz was an American linguist who may be most known for his writing on the Bermuda Triangle and the Philadelphia experiment.
But in his 1972 book, Charles wrote on page 128. "It ended in sudden conquest and ruin by invaders from the north in about 1500 B.C. so suddenly thatskeletons of the slaughtered inhabitants have been found pre-served at the old street level." Note that we do not have a connection with a nuclear explosion yet. Atomic war is mentioned later in the book but seems to build on the same mistranslation of the Mahabharata as Von Däniken, Sitchins, Pauwels, and Bergier use.
Another author named Peter Kolosimo, or Pier Domenico Colosimo as his real name was, published 1974 a book called "Timeless Earth." In it, we find one of the earliest mentions of a futuristic weapon being the reason for the inhalation and doom of the city. Colosimo claims that no graves have been found in the city of Mohenjo Daro, and why it was abandoned is unclear. Colosimo speculates that a likely explanation for there not being a single dead body is due to a weapon that "atomized" the inhabitants. Due to the weapon's power, nothing was left at the end of the attack on those who once lived there.
In a later book called "Doomsday 1999 A.D.," Berlitz incorporates this narrative regarding the site but changes the disintegration to something else. On page 124, it's written, "/.../ as if doom had come so swiftly that the inhabitants did not have time to get to their houses. These skeletons, after unknown thousands of years, are still among the most radioactive that have ever been found, on a par with those of Hiroshima and Nagasaki."
While Berlitz does not say it was an atomic bomb that had exploded, it's evident from the text that we are supposed to fill this idea in ourselves. David Hatcher Childress certainly did and incorporated it in his 1988 book "Lost Cities of Ancient Lemuria & the Pacific." But note here that we have not gotten any source for the radioactive claim. Something that would change in 2000 when Childress released "Technology of the Gods." If you flip to page 238, we can find this little passage in a section dealing with the skeletons found at the site. "Soviet scholars have found a skeleton at one site that had a radioactive level fifty times greater than normal. The Russian archaeologist A. Gorbovsky mentions the high incidence of radiation associated with the skeletons in his 1966 book, Riddles of Ancient History."
From this point, other authors will start to reference Russian scientists and Gorbovsky as a source for the radioactivity on the site. For example, Philip Coppens quoted Gorbovsky in a 2007 article, "Best evidence?." The interesting part there is while Coppens didn't reference Childress, Coppens added another invented source. In the article, Philip Coppens claims that an archaeologist named Francis Taylor said there are depictions in a temple of people praying to be spared from a green light. There is no such depiction at Mohenjo Daro, and I can't find any Francis Taylor who should have published anything on the site. I did find an archaeologist and numismatic (study of coin) named George Francis Taylor. George Taylor was writing about Lebanon's historic temples but not about Mohenjo Daro. In later retellings on authorless blogs, a fictional foreman, Lee Hundley, joins the imaginary Francis Taylor. It's nice that fictional archaeological digs get the funds to hire more staff.
You might wonder how it is with the Russian archaeologist A. Gorbovsky. Does he exist? The answer is yes, he existed, but Gorbovsky is not an archaeologist. He was born in 1930 in Kyiv, then part of the USSR, and named Alexander Alfredovich Gorbovsky (Алекса́ндр Альфре́дович Горбо́вский). Alexander Gorbovsky would go on and study at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, getting a degree as a linguist and oriental historian. Most of his scientific work covers modern history and linguistic studies, but Gorbovsky seems to have become increasingly interested in pseudoscience.
So in 1966, he published his first book on this subject called "Zagadki drevneyshey istorii" (Загадки древнейшей истории), or if we would translate to English, we get "Mysteries of Ancient History." Zahadky can also mean riddle, puzzle, or enigma, so Childress translation is not wrong. But I want to stress that this book has no official translation into English.
But the book covers a lot of the things we are familiar with, ranging from the lost race of giants, unexplained coincidences, world-ending disasters, and how Europeans spread culture in pre-colonial America. Reading the book, I get more Hancock vibes than Von Däniken or Sitchin, for example. There is a similar idea to Hancock present in Gorbovsky, but to be fair, they are not that original and have been around for quite some time.
Right, so Gorbovsky did exist; he did write on pseudoscientific topics. But did he then claim Mohenjo Daro was evidence of a nuclear attack? To find the answer to this, we need to go to the chapter called "Skrytyye Znaniya" (Скрытые знания) or Hidden Knowledge, and the first paragraph of the chapter contains this quote.
"Other findings are known that baffle researchers. In this regard, we can recall a discovery in India. A human skeleton, the radioactivity of which is 50 times higher than normal! (See "Problems of Space Biology," vol. 11,
page 23). For the deposits found in the skeleton to have such high radioactivity, this man, who died 4000 years ago, had to have eaten [radioactive] food for a long time, the radioactivity of which should be hundreds of times higher than usual!"
So it turns out that Gorbovsky did not mention Mohenjo Daro at all, just a discovery that baffled scholars, according to the author. As you heard, we got a source on the radioactive skeleton. The French researcher Philippe Hernandez did unearth the original article published by Lebendinsky and Nefedov called "Problemy Radiatsionnoy Bezopasnosti Kosmicheskikh Poletov" (ПРОБЛЕМЫ РАДИАЦИОННОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ КОСМИЧЕСКИХ ПОЛЕТОВ) or in English "Problems of Radiation Safety in Space Flights."
In the section that Gorbovsky refers to, we can read the following:
"For example, in areas of Monazite sand in India containing Thorium, the total dose of radiation reaches 600 mrem/year. An increase in the natural radiation background is also observed in high-mountain regions, where the radiation dose can be two to three times higher than the dose at sea level. From this point of view, paleo-radiobiology data are of great interest.
According to the recently obtained data of Mayneord, in the ribs of a man who lived more than 4000 years ago, the radioactivity turned out to be 50 times greater than in a contemporary human (3.4 .10-12 and 6.8 .10-14 curie / g, respectively)."m
So the first part deals with natural radiation, which we must deal with daily. It does not matter what you do; radiation is all around you and is just part of nature. Remember, kids, it's the dose that makes the poison. Thorium is compared to uranium, a relatively common radioactive substance in Monazite. It is A phosphate mineral that reminds you of sand in its color. As the authors note, this mineral can be found in India and the U.S., Norway, Australia, and other places. But the authors are dealing with the issue of increasing radiation due to elevation. But they manage to get what I believe is a mistranslation into the text.
The reason why the scientist is discussing this is that the natural radiation levels increase with the elevation. So the higher up you are, the more radiation you will naturally get. So if you intend to send people into space, this is a real issue you must deal with. So this is the aim of the article itself.
The Mayneord in question is William Valentine Mayneord, a British physician and researcher. In 1960 he published the article "Naturally Occurring Alpha Activity" in "The Hazards to Man of Nuclear
And Allied Radiations - a Second Report to the Medical Research Council." Mayneord writes, "It may be of interest that we have obtained from the British Museum the rib of an Egyptian who died almost 4000 years ago. The total alpha activity is 0.34 µµc/gram dried bone." So it turns out that Lebendinsky and Nefedov made a blunder somehow in their text, and Gorbovsky read this and did not, in turn, go and verify that what they said was correct. Instead, he added a nationality to the skeleton, something Lebendinsky and Nefedov didn't mention. So the highly radioactive Indian skeleton never did exist. It was an Egyptian with a lower alpha radiation level than a Londoner and Inuit.
So this should be more than enough to put this whole thing to bed. The radioactive claims regarding Mohenjo Daro are pure fiction. We have not yet solved how Childress, who does not seem to speak Russian, learned about this. It might be, as Jason Colavito points out, propaganda out of Russia recycled by Hindu Nationalistic papers to support their agenda. Colavito has traced the claim to a copy of "Illustrated Weekly of India," which references another magazine called "The Statesman," discussing Gorbovsky's alleged find. Colavito also points out that the USSR propaganda magazine "Sputnik" ran an article in issue number 9 1986 called "Riddles of Ancient History" written by Gorbovsky.
Jason Colavito and I have not been able to locate a copy of the issue, but it would be strange if this was not what Childress referenced in his 1988 book. Basically, meaning that Childress happily read and repeated USSR propaganda to sell his books. Sure, he did add some things by mixing them with Berlitz and Colosimo's ideas. But there we have it, the bare truth finally. But this shows the importance of really reading what you are quoting. We see this quite often in the pseudoscientific community. They copy each other without mentioning it and never really double-check that what they say is correct. While finding and translating sources in a different language was significantly harder 20 or 30 years ago, it was still possible.
Now while looking into all of this and trying to work my way back to the origin, I did note that it's started to appear two camps regarding Mohenjo Daro within the alternative history crowd. Not all seem to buy into the official alternative history story. Nick Redfern, for example, points out in his 2016 book "Wepons of the gods" that "the biggest problem here is that there is no evidence to suggest that either city [Harappa and Mohenjo Daro] was destroyed." Redfern also points out that some of the reporting, such as the quotes from Francis Taylor, does not exist.
Now Redfern still seems to believe that the radioactive skeletons are real, and while it might not have been a nuclear blast, it could have been a powerplant that broke. Or that the explosion was much further away. But toward the end of the chapter, Nick points out that there's no objective evidence for this to be true. In the next edition, it's clear that Nick can write that the whole story is false. The evidence never existed from the start. Feel free to quote as much as you like, Nick. Just remember to add the sources.
So the lesson here is that we should always try to look at the original sources, especially for extraordinary claims. Are the source really saying what the author says it does? Especially on the Internet! There does not have to be evil intent, but scientific journals can be hard to understand sometimes. People make mistakes, so if we hear something that might be too good to be true, we should look up the original source. It can be things we read in the news, on Wikipedia, and definitely what we can read in these pseudoscientific texts from Childress, Berlitz, Von Däniken, and all our experts on these shows.
Here be monsters
The rest of the episode is a mishmash of wrongly cited religious texts from India, Greece, Egypt, and other places. We also get more evolution denialism, of course, and here is the issue with the show. It constantly repeats itself since there's not much they can use without starting to fabricate too much. So while it's interesting to see how and what they are misquoting from these sources, we need to save something for later since the same things appear in later episodes. To be honest, we don't miss much of the latter part of the show. Take, for example, the discussion on Garuda, a Hindu Demigod that functions mainly as a mount for Vishnu. While maybe playing a more significant role in the Hindu religion, Garuda can also be found in Buddhist and Jain religious texts. But the level of the discussion is borderline childish. Just listen to this quote by Giorgio Tsoukalos.
"Garuda was considered to be a snake killer. In fact, Garuda needed to eat snakes in order to survive. Now compare an airplane at the airport today hooked up to a fuel line. Isn't that airplane eating a snake? If you see modern fighter jets take off in the middle of the night, and there's smoke and fire coming out of the exhaust, it looks like a dragon. It looks like some type of a mythical creature, especially if you don't know what you're witnessing is nuts-and-bolts technology. So, of course you're gonna liken it to a living creature. Those Ancient Aliens knew that our ancestors would worship them as gods because they knew that our ancestors didn't know it was technology. They thought it was magic, spirituality, divine intervention, which it never was." - Giorgio Tsoukalos.
Earlier, Giorgio stated that our ancestors were not stupid, but now they can't describe hoes connected to an airplane? They can't differentiate between a living creature and an object? And would not the aliens maybe talk with the humans and explain things to them? Claiming that people who obviously had language to describe things could not describe things accurately is a lazy statement. But this is the level we have for the rest of the episode. So let's save the misquoting of texts for a later date and close the episode out for this time.
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Sandra Marteleur created the intro music, and our outro is by the band called Trallskruv, who sings their song "tin foil hat." Links to both these artists will be found in the show notes.
Until next time, keep shoveling that science!
Sources, resources, and further reading suggestions
Australian Museum (2020). Stages of Decomposition. [online] The Australian Museum. Available at: https://australian.museum/learn/science/stages-of-decomposition/.
Blumenfeld, H. (1942). On a Peculiar Feature of the City Plan of Mohenjo - Daro. Journal of the American Society of Architectural Historians, 2(1), pp.23–26. doi:https://doi.org/10.2307/901201.
Brooks, J.W. (2016). Postmortem Changes in Animal Carcasses and Estimation of the Postmortem Interval. Veterinary Pathology, 53(5), pp.929–940. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985816629720.
Colavito, J. (2018). The Radioactive Skeleton of Mohenjo Daro: How Soviet Propaganda Spiraled into a Extreme Fringe History Claim. [online] Jason Colavito. Available at: https://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/the-radioactive-skeleton-of-mohenjo-daro-how-soviet-propaganda-spiraled-into-a-extreme-fringe-history-claim.
Danino, M. (2014). Non-utilitarian Use of Proportions in Harappan town-planning. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, [online] 2, pp.41–53. Available at: PDF: Non-utilitarian Use of Proportions in Harappan town-planning.
Gorbovsky, A.A. (1966). Zagadki Drevnejshej Istorii. 1st ed. Moskva: Znanie.
Горбовскы, А.А. (1966). Загадки Древнейшей Истории. Москва: Знание.
Jansen, M. (1985). Mohenjo-Daro, city of the Indus Valley. Endeavour, 9(4), pp.161–169. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-9327(85)90072-9.
Jansen, M. (1989). Water supply and sewage disposal at Mohenjo‐Daro. World Archaeology, 21(2), pp.177–192. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1989.9980100.
Lebendinsky, A.B. and Nefedov, G. (1962). Problemy Radiatsionnoy Bezopasnosti Kosmicheskikh Poletov. Проблемы космической биологии, 2, pp.11–24.
Лебендинский A. B. and Нефедов г. (1962) ПРОБЛЕМЫ РАДИАЦИОННОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ КОСМИЧЕСКИХ ПОЛЕТОВ, II, pp. 11-24.
Mayneord, W.V. (1960). Naturally Occurring Alpha Activity. In: The Hazards to Man of Nuclear And Allied Radiations. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, pp.73–79.
Naish, D. (2008). What was the Montauk monster? [online] scienceblogs.com. Available at: scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2008/08/04/the-montauk-monster
Nali" Hernandez, P. (2018). Les squelettes radioactifs de Mohenjo Daro. [online] irna.fr. Available at: https://irna.fr/Les-squelettes-radioactifs-de-Mohenjo-Daro.html.
Ratnagar, S. (2014). The drainage systems at Mohenjo-Daro and Nausharo: A technological breakthrough or a stinking disaster? Studies in People’s History, 1(1), pp.1–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/2348448914537334.
“Folie hatt” by Trallskruv
Lily of the woods by Sandra Marteleur