Listener questions and AI explorers
This time the listener's questions and comments are in the spotlight! I have opened up the giant bag of electronic communications and will take some time to answer some of the questions and comments from you, the listener.
The questions ranged from dangers during excavations, melted stones, and Ancient Egyptian Wi-FI. I also have an update on a previous story we covered solving a claim's true origin.
In Digging up Ancient Aliens, our host Fredrik uses his background in archaeology to discover what is genuine, fake, and somewhere in between in popular media, such as Ancient Aliens, Ancient Apocalypse, and many other places.
In this episode:
Melted Stones in Peru 2:09
Egyptian Wi-Fi 5:25
How to approach Pseudoscience 18:55
Running from Bulls 23:19
Alfred Isaac Middleton - Solved! 27:00Sources, resources and further reading suggestions
Hi, hello, and välkommen to Digging Up Ancient Aliens. This is the podcast where we examine strange claims about alternative history and ancient aliens in popular media. Do their claims hold water to an archeologist, or are there better explanations out there?
I am your host, Fredrik, and this is episode 37. This time things are going to be a little bit different. Questions and comments have come in throughout the show; this episode will address some of these. If you have written a question or comment that's not covered here, don't worry. It will likely be in a future episode. This time, the questions will cover various topics and locations ranging from South America to Egypt. Some will be personal, while others will be about pseudo-archaeological topics such as melted stones or ancient Egyptian Wi-Fi. What we do miss is a correction, but I have an update on a story I did cover some time ago.
If you have a comment or question, the best way to get it to me is by email. The contact info can be found on diggingupancientaliens.com, together with the references for each episode. If email is not your thing, don't worry. I can usually be found in the comment section on the posts made on social media.
I also try to read the reviews you leave, so if you like the podcast, I would appreciate it if you left one of those fancy five-star reviews I've heard so much about.
But with that out of the way, let's dig into the episode!
I got a question from listener David who wrote me asking, "Would you please comment on what appears to be melted stone work at this site in Peru and what might have done the damage? I know it wasn't a UFO that did it!"
With the question, I got a picture of an Inka water fountain at the site of Tambomachay. The fountain itself isn't quite small with traditional Inka masonry in a Cellular polygonal style. Meaning we have stones with different shape and form fitted together. We have seen more elaborate fountains in Ollantaytambo, for example. A site we covered in episode 29, titled Aliens and Ancient Engineers.
Tambomachay is not far from the city of Cusco and contains a lot of different waterworks. We find aqueducts, springs, and fountains here. The actual function of the place is a bit unclear, and it can be speculated that it was a noble retreat, a water temple, or a combination of several things. What is impressive is that many of the fountains still work today.
To get back to Davids's question, I thought he meant a set of rocks to the left of the fountains. Due to the size of the picture, this part had a wet sheen, which added to the melted effect I perceived. But the stone is not melted, of course. By looking at other pictures and comparing, it's evident that the stone has suffered from pitting and erosion from the elements. David also had realized this, but we looked at a different spot. He was talking about another section of the stoneworks that was also a part where the natural rock. It seems as if the Inka builders, to save time, had incorporated some features of the natural outcroppings. But it turns out that these sections were of lower quality than the stones brought in from elsewhere.
So this is quite a good exercise in how the pareidolia effect work. If instructed to find an anomaly, we are more likely to see one, even if it does not exist. That's why people selling pseudoscience usually point out what you should look for and where to ensure you will see this. If you would just get a picture where the melted stone is not pointed out, you're likelier to not see it and write this off. So thank you, David, for this great reminder!
Wi-Fi in Ancient Egypt?
Then we have a question that took a bit longer than anticipated to answer and led me down a rabbit hole of Ptolemaic art, Egyptian perfume making, and barbeque.
It all started with an account called Transition Cat sending me a video from an Instagram creator named Billy Carson. We have not encountered Billy within the Ancient Alien context, but he seems to put himself in between ET and lost civilizations. Carson is behind a pseudoscience streaming network named 4biddenknowledge INC. and been a talking head on shows like Ancient Civilizations on Gaia. A show we will get to one of these days. Gaia is quite prolific in their quest to spread humbug.
Billy Carson has the tells of a quack, and it becomes apparent in the video that he is not above making things up. In the video, we can hear him make the following claim.
"As a matter of fact, when you go into the Temple of Horus in Egypt, there's a depiction of something that's really amazing. It's the Wi-Fi symbol emanating a frequency out of an Egyptian person's hand, showing that they had the capability of understanding frequencies through wireless technology." - Billy Carson 4biddenknowledge
In the video, we see a depiction of a man holding a jar and what looks like the Wi-Fi symbol in the other but with dots between each line. My initial thought was that it was some sort of drying rack. Now Ancient Egyptian art is not my specialty, but I did my best. After some more research, it kind of looked as if it could be a depiction of the "essence of incense." But that answer never sat well with me, so I continued to look.
The depiction is located within the Temple of Horus in Edfu. This temple is usually just referred to as the Edfu Temple if you go online. It's located between Aswan and Luxor in a town today known as Edfu; the Ancient Egyptians called this place Djeba. The temple sits on an older temple. Unfortunately, not much is known about the earlier temple, and one of the few things preserved is a naos-type shrine from the last native Egyptian Pharao Nectanebo II. A Naos shrine is a rectangular box with an opening, often for a statue.
The Temple of Horus is one of the best-preserved ancient Egyptian sites. Thanks to its state of preservation, we have a wealth of information about the temple and the people who built it, including their own words inscribed on its walls. We can learn a great deal about how they constructed the temple and the different rituals within the walls. The construction was first started by Ptolemy III in 237 BCE and would take 180 years. The final addition to the temple was made by Cleopatra VII (the famous Cleopatra) father, Ptolemy XII, and was finished in 57 BCE.
If we would stroll towards the temple, we would be met by two statues of Horus as a falcon on each side of the entrance. Behind them are the large entrance pylon, consisting of two decorated towers. We already see that the Ptolomeic art style differs from the classic era. Of course, there are traditional elements, such as Ptolemy XII smiting his enemies with a mace. We also see a scene called "Feast of the Beautiful Meeting," in which Horus of Edfu is united with Hathor of Dendera. After passing the pylons, we enter a peristyle courtyard, showing the Greek influences in the temple. This yard is open to the sun in the center, with 32 columns supporting a short roof on the sides. On the walls, we find several foundational texts within Egyptian mythology; possibly most noteworthy among them is Horus defeating the evil Seth. After this defeat, Horus takes his place as the ruler of Egypt.
We will get to two Hypostyle halls if we continue into the temple. Hypostyle means that the room has several columns that support the roof of the building. As we make our way towards the holy of holy, there will be darker and darker. We are then getting into the Offering Hall, where we can see the rites of the divine offerings and the actions that were supposed to occur. A table was most likely here to prepare the offerings to Horus and the other gods in the temple. We will return to this room momentarily since this is the key to our Wi-Fi symbol.
To the west and east in this room, we find stairs symbolizing the sun's rising and setting. The god climbed the eastern staircase during the new year to see his sun disk and unite with his ba. He would later descend the western stairs satisfied after taking his place at the temple.
Further in, we find the sanctuary where Horus's image would reside and more rooms for storage. One of them is referred to as a laboratory or Lord of the Ointments workshop. Within this room, we find descriptions of offerings of oils, perfumes, and incense to the gods. We even find depictions of the pharao offering natron, one of the mummification's main ingredients. Almost all the offerings are made by Ptolemy VI to various gods. While the temple is mainly dedicated to Horus, the other gods were still honored here. We also find two recipes written on the walls of this room for a substance the Egyptians called Kapet.
Kapet was mainly used as a sort of incense and is presumably one of the most famous prepared fragrances in Ancient Egypt. The oldest mention of this preparation is in the pyramid text from Pharao Unas in the fifth dynasty. While our preserved recipes are few and younger, this is an old and vital tradition in Ancient Egypt. In most of the literature, Kapet will be referred to as the Greek translation Kyphi. The word itself could be translated to a substance used in fumigation, a substance to be burnt, or a scent. Kapet could also be used not as incense but as a remedy for a myriad of illnesses.
The two recipes we find in the room are basically the same; the difference lies in the quantities and the names of the substances. One is called "Recipe for the preparation of excellent kyphi for divine use" and contains more illustrative terms than its alternative version. The one for divine use includes more of the expensive items compared to the just "excellent kyphi." If you want to create your own, you need the following ingredients.
raisins from the oases 3.3 liters
wine 2.5 liters
'fresh Horus eye,' i.e., oasis wine 2.5 liters
'sweet Horus eye,' i.e., honey 3.3 liters
frankincense (sntr) 1,213 g
myrrh (kar) 1,155 g
mastic 273 g
pine resin 273 g
sweet flag 273 g
aspalathos 273 g
camel grass 273 g
mint 273 g
cyperus 1.5 liters
juniper 1.5 liters
pine kernels 1.5 liters
peker (tuberous chervil) 1.5 litres
cinnamon 273 g
Mix and light on fire to please the gods. But what does all of this have to do with the Wi-Fi symbol? Don't worry, I'll come to this now. If we go online and try to find this symbol, the sources will claim that it is located within the perfume laboratory. So I've spent much time reviewing the different registers and reliefs within this room. I've read up on Egyptian perfume and incense making but nowhere could I find this symbol. Realizing I'd hit a dead end, I went back, trying to figure out where the scene could be found within the temple.
Looking at some tourist videos, I managed to find out that the scene was located within the offering room we mentioned earlier. At this point, I reached out to Annelise Baer, who creates a lot of excellent videos on Ancient Egypt and other topics over on TikTok. We found Dr. Carina van den Hoven, who did her dissertation on "The coronation ritual of the Falcon at Edfu." This seems to be a fascinating book regarding the function and composition of ritual texts within Ptolemaic Egypt. It's supposed to be published later this year, and if you're into Egyptology, this seems to be a great read.
Dr. van den Hoven was kind enough to help me further, and I finally could find out what this was. The scene is described in Émile Chassinat's Le Temple d'Edfou, vol. IX, on plate XXXV(35)b, published in 1929. It turns out the Wi-Fi symbol can be found on each side of the door on the southern wall, and you can also spot it on the eastern wall in another offering scene.
If you know how to read hieroglyphs and ancient Egyptian, you will learn that the accompanied text talks about how the gods are offered meat and fat from butchered animals. With this in mind, we can go to Gardiner's sign list and look up sign F43, the sign for the Egyptian word sHpt. Translate this to English, and we get the word ribs. So the gods get an offering of a jar of animal fat and a cut of meat, in this case, ribs. Whether or not they were barbequed and honey-glazed is not evident from the text.
So the ancient Egyptians did not have Wi-Fi, and this story shows the importance of experts like Annelise Baer and Dr. Carina van den Hoven. While you can read up on things, nothing ultimately beats the true experts in their fields. As for Carson's claims, they are clearly spun out of thin air.
This is not the first time we actually encountered this temple. Another scene in the temple is claimed by Derek Olson from megalithic marvels to depict levitation in Ancient Egypt. For more about that, you should head to YouTube, where I publish some extra stuff. Megalithic Marvels and Derek Olson are posting a lot of different pseudo-scientific claims and selling overpriced tours of misinformation.
But there we have it, and I'm sorry, Transition Cat, for the delayed answer. But we did manage to find what it was in the end.
Listener Torfinn wrote as a comment to our episode about Graham Hancocks Netflix series. Torfinn wrote, "Did he get it wrong? Or did he just lie? Never attribute to ignorance what can better be attributed to greed."
This is a question I wrestle with myself, should we accuse these fringe authors of being liars and peddlers of disinformation? I'm unsure and go back and forth on it. Calling someone a liar will put this person in a defensive stance, making reaching them harder. The end goal is not for them to continue writing these fringe stories. The end goal is that they see reason and the errors in their past ideas. Michel Marshall, editor of the Skeptic magazine UK and host of Be Reasonable, has an excellent approach. I've also discussed the concept of pedagogy of luck with Aron Rabinowitz back in episode 26, where the idea is that we should use compassion and empathy to change people's minds. Mainly because not everyone has had the luck of having the education and access to the information we have.
So this is a question without black-and-white answers. The best approach is not yet found, as far as I know. We should also note that it varies from person to person. The journey to leave pseudoscience is long and will differ, just as a person going from religion to atheism.
Feel free to message me with your opinion or experience on the matter. I'm happy to hear from you all.
So my position is a bit in between. As long we don't have evidence that they are lying and intentionally spreading disinformation, we should be kinder. Some of the writers are true believers that have been hoodwinked themselves. But when we know that they are actively deceiving while not believing, we should definitely go after them harder.
Dangers during excavations
Alfred Isaac Middleton
This next section is not a question but a case where additional information has been found. A while back, I did a YouTube video called "Alfred Isaac Midleton - the greatest explorer that never existed." If you have watched that clip, don't worry. We will not repeat it but give an extended version of it. I have uncovered some new details of the story's origin that interest you all.
Let's talk about AI-generated images and stories. You might have seen a recent report on social media accompanied by old-timey pictures of the great explorer Alfred Isaac Middleton. The spelling varies with one or two "D" in the last name. These pictures are usually accompanied by a story that goes something like this:
"British explorer Alfred Isaac Midleton (Or Middleton) traveled the farthest reaches of the globe during the late 19th century in search of zoological, botanical, and archeological wonders. These recently unearthed photographs help to shed light on some of his amazing discoveries during several missions to then-uncharted regions of Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Amazon rainforest.
Unfortunately, all of his journals and scientific writings were lost in 1901 when Midleton and his team vanished during a Sumatran expedition to uncover the fabled Lost City of Dawleetoo. Due to these tragic events, scant details are known about what you see in these fascinating photos."
Picture this: a mysterious story with clues hidden in plain sight. It starts with the protagonist's name, A.I. Middleton, which seems innocent enough. But take a closer look; you'll see it's a clue to the story's origin. Artificial Intelligence Middleton. Add in the city of Dawleetoo, a play on the name of Dall-e II, and suddenly the mystery deepens.
But the author doesn't stop there. The story's construction is downright clever. You see, Middleton wasn't just any name plucked from thin air. It was the name of a real-life archaeologist and museum director during the 1800s. John Henry Middleton, to be exact. And get this: in 2011, an archaeological society was named after him. It's almost as if the author is trying to make the story more believable by using a name that resembles a genuine person.
It's little details like these that make this story so intriguing. Who knows what other secrets are waiting to be uncovered?
Some of the stories seem inspired by the adventurer Percy Fawcett, who we will get to in a moment, and a document called "Manuscript 512." The document's real name is "Relação histórica de huma oculta, e grande Povoação, antiguissima sem moradores, que se descubrio no anno de 1753" or in English, "Historical relation of an occult, large, very old settlement with no inhabitants that was found in the year 1753." The record was discovered in 1839 in the National Library of Brazil by Manuel Ferreira Lagos.
All in all, the manuscript contains twelve pages written by an unknown author and seems to be part of a letter. The tale within the pages follows a group of "Bandeirantes," another name for slavers/explorers in Brazil, and their discovery of an abandoned city in the state of Bahia. The short version goes as follows.
As they journeyed through the rugged terrain, a contingent led by a Portuguese colonel chanced upon a breathtaking sight: a deserted settlement perched atop a high mountain range. The entrance to this mysterious city was adorned with a Roman-looking triple archway and etched with cryptic inscriptions in an unknown language, shrouding the place in an aura of enigma. As they ventured further into the city, they came upon a square dominated by a black pedestal bearing a statue of a man pointing resolutely northwards. An expansive building, resplendent with intricate reliefs and inlaid works depicting crosses, crows, and other intricate designs, loomed nearby. The magnificent street portico was graced by a relief carving of a half-naked figure sporting a laurel crown, imbuing the place with an air of regal majesty.
Undaunted, the group explored the abandoned mineshafts and were astounded to discover rocks infused with silver and inscriptions that defied their attempts at decipherment. Their discovery of a sprawling countryside manor was even more astonishing, replete with untold secrets and mysteries waiting to be uncovered. In their quest for riches, they tested the soil near the nearby river and were rewarded with a bounty of gold flecks. Despite the allure of wealth, the author pauses to reflect on the deserted city's strange and curious state and marvels at the fauna that now inhabits the ruins. As the group searched the town, one expedition member found a remarkable treasure - a gold coin portraying a young boy kneeling on one side and a bow, arrow, and crown on the other.
As we delve deeper into the annals of history, we often find that the intersection of nationalism and "alternative history" is a theme that rears its head time and time again. And so it was when the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute received the details of the enigmatic Manuscript 512.
With hopes of uncovering evidence of a Greco-Roman culture to bolster their newly-formed Brazilian identity, expeditions were launched in search of the lost city the manuscript purportedly detailed. Alas, all efforts were in vain. But the document's legacy would prove to be far-reaching.
Manuscript 512 became a source of inspiration for many in the arts and literature. Perhaps most famously, it was the foundation for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel "The Lost World," published in 1912. And it was also entwined in the lore of Percy Fawcett's search for the lost city of Z.
Doyle also appears in some of the more elaborate versions of the Middleton story. Or rather, Doyle's assistant is claimed to have kept a cache of documents safe about Alfred Middleton. The age of the assistant is a bit vague, but some articles of a bit dubious origin claim that this assistant should have sent or received an email about this. A claim that would be impressive since Doyle's assistant, Alfred H. Wood, died in 1941.
In the realm of alternative history, tall tales, and half-truths often capture the public's imagination. One such account involves the supposed cache of documents kept by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's assistant, which is always unnamed within the accounts.
However, there are many holes in this narrative. Some articles with dubious origins claim that this assistant either sent or received an email about these documents to or from the British consulate. But considering that we know that Doyle's assistant was Alfred H. Wood, who died in 1941, the likelihood of such an email is slim to none.
But all of this leads us to Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Fawcett. A fascinating person who might be the main inspiration for the Indiana Jones character. Fawcett also became friends with Arthur Conan Doyle, who based some of his books on Fawcett.
Percy Fawcett was a man cut from a different cloth. After retiring from the military in 1906, he became obsessed with exploring the uncharted wilderness of Brazil. In a time when being an adventurer was an actual job title, Fawcett mounted seven expeditions between 1906 and 1924, earning a reputation as a capable explorer.
Fawcett had a different approach toward the indigenous people of the Amazon than others. He treated the locals respectfully and patiently, offering gifts on contact to be better accepted. This set him somewhat apart from other explorers in the area.
But even a man like Fawcett couldn't escape the pull of war. When World War I broke out, he reenlisted at the age of 50, leaving his explorations behind and heading back to Britain.
In 1925, Fawcett embarked on his final expedition to find the City of Z, accompanied by his son Jack and Jack's friend, Raleigh Rimmel. They were last seen on May 29, 1925, entering the jungle in search of the lost city. Despite numerous search and rescue missions, no trace of Fawcett or his team was ever found, and their disappearance remains a mystery. The last known location of the party was at the Horse Shoe Camp, where Fawcett wrote one of his last known letters.
The theories around Fawcett's disappearance range from dying from starvation, exhaustion, and being killed by one of the tribes in the area to being sucked into a time warp or kidnapped by aliens. In the most likely hood, they got hit by disease or had an accident that killed them. But in 1979, Fawcett's signet ring turned up in a pawnshop within the small city of Cuiabá. Located in the southwest of Brazil. This, of course, led to speculations that bandits were behind his disappearance. Until we find the expeditions bodies, we won't have any specific answers, but the jungles have claimed people in the past and will continue to do so.
Looking at pictures of Percy Fawcett, we're met by a grave man with a steely gaze. He could almost be likened to a mysterious wilderness guide, living off the land and keeping to himself in a Victorian post-apocalyptic world. It's also abundantly clear that Fawcett is the inspiration for the stories when we look at the pictures accompanying the posts. Among the photos is a portrait of a man with a beard, a straight nose, and a piercing stare wearing a pith helmet. If we compare this face with the pictures we have of Fawcett, there is no doubt that this portrait is based on Fawcett's photographs.
Now, I want to warn you, dear listeners, that some don't let facts get in the way of a good story in the world of alternative history. We've seen it before, and we'll see it again. Sensationalistic blogs like "Lost Books" and "Mysteries Unsolved" have been quick to jump on the Middleton bandwagon, but let's take a closer look at one of their supposed sources, shall we? They claim a book called "The Lost Casket of Dawleetoo" supposedly contains the story of Middleton, gold statues, and the lost city. They even named the author, a Frenchman named Fortuné du Boisgobey.
But here's the thing, folks. While Fortuné du Boisgobey was a real author, he never wrote about Dawleetoo or Alfred Isaac Middleton. In 1881 du Boisgobey published a book called La Main coupée; in its English translation, it is called "The lost casket." This book is available on the Internet Archive and Gutenburg Project for free, but I must warn you. It is not as exciting as these alternative history blogs make it out to be.
So, with all of this knowledge, we could be pretty confident when declaring the story and the pictures a hoax. But all this research might have been a bit overkill. Since we do know who did create both the account and the photos. On July 29, 2022, Visual Effects Supervisor Mitch Gates posted on his Facebook wall. The post got little traction compared to later reposts, but it is the origin of the whole concept. The post even contained the hashtag #midjourney.
Mich Gates has created quite a lot of these AI-generated pictures. One set depicts what we are supposed to think is the set for the faked moon landing conspiracy theory. While another explores a hypothetical future where artificial intelligence has replaced human creativity, leading to the downfall of art stores and the displacement of creative professionals. These thought-provoking images offer a unique perspective on the impact of technological advancements on society and the arts.
On August 3, 2022, Mich Gates even complained about "another share who forgot to credit." So it seems clear that we have the story's origin right here with Mich. From what I can tell, it was never intended to fool somebody or deceive. It was a fun thought experiment visualized by Midjourney with some tongue-in-cheek text added to give the pictures an additional flavor.
If you look closer at the photographs made by Gates, you will notice a lot of AI artifacts since these seem to not have been edited afterward. AI, at this point, also struggled with portraying humans, so all portraits look odd to the human eye. As the technology advance, this might not be the case in the future, and something you will need to keep an eye on. While we have struggled with Photoshop for some time, AI art has the potential for even more hoaxes. Gone are the days when a picture could be accepted as is. The gen five of Midjourney can create photo-realistic renderings of prompts you feed them on a level where it's tough to tell it apart from reality.
So if you don't trust the source, you should definitely not trust any pictures from there. Even if it's a trusted source, you must do some investigations before accepting it since they could have been duped. While being a skeptic has become even more challenging, we should take pride that it's never been more critical.
This would have been where I told you, listener, that all of this was written by an AI, like Eli Bosnicks Citation Needed episode on ChatGTP. And I did try to use ChatGTP to write this but first. Fortunately, or unfortunately, Gates created the Middleton story too recently, so it's not part of what ChatGTP knows. So I tried giving it the information I wanted to use, but the issue was that the AI started to make things up anyway to a point where it's started to create even more sources for Alfred Isaac Middleton that don't exist. When I called the bot out on it, I only got excuses and that it would try to do better in the future.
The AI tools are great if you really know the material you work with and looking to improve your texts. But as a research assistant or a replacement for searching Google? Then it can be outright dangerous. While we have added the word intelligence to this type of bot, we must remember that it does not really understand things and can't separate between good and bad information.
That was all we had this time around. Due to a vacation, the next episode won't release until the end of May. So I will have time to breathe and collect myself before getting things back out there. There are a lot of episodes you can listen to in the meantime, and make sure to check out my YouTube channel. Before you know it, we will be back with more silly aliens and history. But till then, remember to leave a positive review anywhere you can, such as iTunes, Spotify, or to your friend at the trench. I would also recommend visiting diggingupancientaliens.com to find more info about me and the podcast. You can also find me on most social media sites, and if you have comments, corrections, suggestions, or just want to write an email in all caps, you can find my contact info on the website.
You will find all the sources and resources used to create this podcast on our website. You will often also find further reading suggestions if you want to learn more about the subjects we bring up.
Sandra Marteleur created the intro music, and our outro is by the band called Trallskruv, who sings their song "tin foil hat." Links to both these artists will be found in the show notes.
Until next time, keep shoveling that science!
Sources, resources, and further reading suggestions
Byl, S.A. (2012). The Essence and Use of Perfume in Ancient Egypt.
Cust, L.H. (2004). Middleton, John Henry. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/18676.
Eaton, K. (2014). Ancient Egyptian Temple Ritual. Routledge.
Heckenberger, M.J. (2009). Lost Cities of the Amazon. Scientific American, 301(4), pp.64–71. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1009-64.
Kurth, D. (2004). The Temple Of Edfu : Aguide By An Ancient Egyptian Priest. American Univ in Cairo Press.
Langer, J. (2002). A Cidade Perdida da Bahia: mito e arqueologia no Brasil Império. Revista Brasileira de História, 22(43), pp.126–152. doi:https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-01882002000100008.
Manniche, L. and Forman, W. (1999). Sacred luxuries : fragrance, aromatherapy, and cosmetics in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca, Ny: Cornell Univ. Press.
“Folie hatt” by Trallskruv
Lily of the woods by Sandra Marteleur